Citizenship of a person may be determined through the principle of jus soli and jus sanguinis. The Philippines adheres to jus sanguinis principle. It states that a child will acquire the citizenship of his parents in spite of the country of his/her birth. US follows the jus soli principle which says that a child will acquire the citizenship of the country where he/she is born.
The scenario above will lead us to a determination that the child is both a Filipino and American citizen at the same time. But, on the part of the Philippine Government, there is one more thing to obtain before a person can be acknowledged as indeed a citizen of the Philippines, and that should be recognition as a Filipino citizen.
It is an act of conferring Philippine citizenship to a person born in a foreign country whose father or mother is a Filipino citizen. In this sense, only persons with dual citizenship may apply for recognition.
The following are the requirements for recognition:
- Petition by way of letter request from the person concerned or from either or both parents or legal guardian;
- Birth certificate or Report of Birth of applicant / child;
- Birth certificate of petitioner /parent;
- Marriage contract of parents;
- Applicant’s / child’s passport;
- Petitioner’s / parent’s passport;
- Affidavit of citizenship executed by applicant’s parents; and
- Proof of Filipino citizenship of petitioner / applicant’s parent at the time of birth of the applicant / child.
Any document issued by foreign governments and executed in a foreign country shall be duly authenticated by the authorized officer of the Philippine Embassy or Consulate that has jurisdiction over them. Affidavits must be notarized. Any document should be officially translated to English or Filipino under the seal of the authorized officer of the appropriate foreign embassy.
FINALITY OF THE RECOGNITION
It is only when the Order of Recognition has been affirmed by the Secretary of Justice that the order becomes final. The Bureau of Immigration will afterwards issue the Identification Certificate as a Filipino citizen.